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Natural Vegetation and Wild Life

I. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
A. NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Questions Within The Lesson
Q.1. Find out why are the southern slopes in Himalayan region covered with thick vegetation
cover as compared to northern slopes of the same hills. (Page 43)
The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides.
Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots of the plants submerged underwater.


India has more than 1200 species of birds, 2500 species of fish and between 5 to 8 per cent
of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals.



India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions.

The Himalayas have a large range of animals that survive the bitter cold.

Every species of animal has a role to play in the ecosystem; hence conservation is essential.

Hunting and pollution is causing threat to animal species.

To protect the flora and fauna of the country, the government has taken many steps.

Fourteen biosphere reserves have been set up in the country to protect flora and fauna.

89 National Parks, 49 Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves have been set up to take
care of natural heritage.
Ans. The northern slopes of the hills in Himalayan region are at high altitude and have low
temperature or are snow covered. This does not allow much vegetation. In the southern part
of the hills there are plains and valleys watered by rivers and with fertile soil and pleasant
temperature levels all required for dense growth of vegetation.

Q.2. Find out why have the western slopes of the Western Ghats covered with thick forests
and not the eastern slopes. (Page 43)
Ans. The westward facing slopes receive much more rain than the eastward facing slopes and the
Western Ghats are considerably wetter than the dry Deccan to the east.

2


Questions in the Exercise

Q.1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below : (CBSE 2010)
(i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
(a) Tundra (b) Himalayan (c) Tidal (d) Tropical Evergreen
Ans. Tropical Evergreen
(ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than :
(a) 100 cm (b) 70 cm (c) 50 cm (d) Less than 50 cm
Ans. more than 100 cm
(iii) In which of the following states is the Simplipal bioreserve located?
(b) Delhi (c) Orissa (d) West Bengal
(iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of
(b) Gulf of Mannar (c) Sunderbans (d) Nanda Devi
Q.2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Define an ecosystem.
Ans. An ecosystem comprises plants and animals existing interdependently and inter-related to each
other in their physical environment.

(ii) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
Ans. The distribution of plant and animal life in India is determined by the following :
(a) Temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and the nature of the soil.
(b) Variation in sunlight due to
variations in latitude, height above sea level, season and
duration of the day in any specific region.
(c) Amount of rainfall.
(a) Punjab
Ans. Orissa

bioreserve?

(a) Manas
Ans. Manas

(d) Soil conditions
(e) Relief — mountains, plateaus or plains.
(iii) What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.
What is a biosphere reserve? What is their importance?

Ans. Bio-reserves are intended to protect and conserve the diverse flora and fauna found within the

OR


(CBSE 2010)


country. In these reserves every plant and animal species is protected in its natural form.


The first bio-reserve came up at the trijunction of the state of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and
Karnataka in 1986.
Two years later another bioreserve was set up at Nanda Devi.


(iv) Name two animals having habitat in different types of vegetation.
Ans. Type of vegetation Plants
Animals

Tropical Rainforests Rosewood, Ebony Elephants, Monkeys

3


Tropical Deciduous Forests Teak, Sal Lion, Tiger
Thorn Forests Palms, Acacia Rats, Rabbits
Temperate Forests Oak, Chestnut Yak, Wild sheep
Alpine and Tundra Vegetation Pines, Silver fir Snow Leopard, Yak
Q.3. Distinguish between:
(i) Flora and Fauna
(ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous Forests

Ans. (i) Fauna refers to species of animals found in an region. Flora denotes plants of a particular

(ii) Tropical evergreen forests abound in areas with rainfall exceeding 200 cm in a year. Trees
reach heights up to 60 m in these forests. The vegetation is luxuriant. There is no definite
time for the trees to shed leaves. A large number of species exist together in such forests.
Important trees are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona. Deciduous forests
are spread over the region where the rainfall ranges between 70-200 cm annually. In dry
summer, the trees shed their leaves for six to eight weeks. Commercially important wood
is found in these forests. Important trees are teak, sal, shisham. etc.
Q.4. Name different types of vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high
Ans. The different types of vegetation found in India are:
Tropical rainforests, Tropical Deciduous forests, Thorn forests, Temperate forests, Alpine and

Alpine vegetation is found at places over 3,600 m in height. The trees common to these are


silver fir, junipers, pines and birches.
The trees get stunted as they reach the snow line. There are shrubs and scrubs that ultimately
merge into Alpine grasslands. Tundra vegetation is limited to lichens and mosses.


Q.5. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered. Why?
Ans. The main reason for extinction of certain species of plants is excessive commercialization.
region.

altitudes.

Tundra vegetation.

Plant species are endangered as more lands are being cleared for factories, housing colonies
and roads. Pollution of air, water and soil adds to the danger to natural vegetation. Animal
species are getting extinct due to hunting and poaching. Commercial exploitation of
forestlands has also reduced space for animal habitats.

Q.6. Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?
(CBSE 2010)


Ans. India has a rich heritage of fauna and flora as geographically the country has a very wide range
of physical, climatic and soil conditions. Our tradition of respecting all forms of life has also
contributed to the preservation of plant and animal species over the centuries.

MAP SKILLS

Q.1. On an outline map of India, label the following.
(i) Areas of Evergreen Forests
(ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests
(iii) Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the country.
4


OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS (AS PER CCE PATTERN)
B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (1 MARK)
OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS (AS PER CCE PATTERN)
B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (1 MARK)
Q.1. From the point of view of natural vegetation and wildlife, India belongs to which of the
following categories?
(a) One of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world
(b) The richest wildlife zone in the world
(c) The country with the greatest forest cover
(d) A country lacking in biodiversity cover
Ans. (a)

Q.2. Which of the following positions does India occupy in the world with regard to plant
diversity?
(a) Fourth (b) Sixth (c) Tenth (d) Twelfth
Ans. (c)

Q.3. Which one of the following is not included in the group of non-flowering plants?
(a) Ferns (b) Orchids (c) Algae (d) Fungi
Ans. (b)

5


Q.4. Which of the following types of vegetation does not belong to the category of natural
vegetation?
(a) Forests (b) Mangroves (c) Horticulture (d) Grasslands
Ans. (c)

Q.5. Which of the following terms is used for the original plant cover of an area which has
grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long
time?
(a) Natural vegetation (b) Agriculture (c) Gardens (d) Plantations
Ans. (a)

Q.6. Which of the following terms is used for a plant community which has grown naturally
without human aid and interference? (CBSE 2010)
(b) Virgin vegetation (c) Cultivated fields (d) Plantations
Q.7. Which of the following terms is used for plants which are at present part of natural
vegetation but have originally come to India from abroad?
(a) Indigenous plants (b) Endemic species (c) Endangered plants (d) Exotic plants
Q.8. Which of the following terms is used for virgin vegetation which is purely Indian in
(a) Endangered species (b) Endemic species (c) Exotic species (d) Normal species
Q.9. Which of the following terms is used to denote plants of a particular region or period?
(b) Flora (c) Fauna (d) None of the above
Q.10. Which of the following terms is used to denote animal species of a particular region or
(a) Fern (b) Flora (c) Fauna (d) None of these
(a) Orchards
Ans. (b)

Ans. (d)

origin?

Ans. (b)

(a) Ferns
Ans. (b)

period?

Q.11. Which of the following factors influence the type and distribution of natural vegetation?
(a) Landform (b) Soil
Q.12. Which of the following types of vegetation is common in fertile, level lands?
(a) Forests (b) Grasslands
Ans. (c)

(c) Climate (d) All the above
Ans. (d)

(c) Mangroves (d) Cultivated crops
Ans. (d)

Q.13. Which of the following types of vegetation usually develops on undulating and rough
terrains?
(a) Grasslands and woodlands (b) Mangroves
(c) Cactus and thorny bushed (d) Cultivated crops
Ans. (a)

Q.14. Which of the following types of vegetation grows in the sandy soil of the desert?
(a) Coniferous trees (b) Grasslands
(c) Cactus and thorny bushes (d) Mangroves
Ans. (c)

6


Q.15. Which of the following types of vegetation grows in wet, marshy soil?
(a) Grasslands (b) Mangroves (c) Cactus (d) Alpine vegetation
Ans. (b)

Q.16. The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by which of the climatic
factors?
(a) Temperature (b) Humidity (c) Precipitation (d) All the above
Ans. (d)

Q.17. Due to which of the following reasons does the vegetation on the slopes of the Himalayas
and the hills of the peninsula above the height of 915 metres change from tropical to
subtropical, temperate and alpine vegetation?

(b) High humidity
(c) Fall in temperature (d) Very heavy rainfall
Q.18. Which of the following types of vegetation grows in areas with mean annual average
temperature of above 24°C?
(b) Subtropical (c) Temperate (d) Alpine
Q.19. Which of the following types of vegetation zones is found in the higher reaches of the
Himalayas with mean annual average temperature below 7°C?
(b) Subtropical (c) Alpine (d) Temperate
Q.20. Trees grow faster in which of the following seasons?
(b) Summer (c) Rainy season (d) Autumn
Q.21. Why are the southern slopes in Himalayan region covered with thick vegetation as
compared to northern slopes of the same hills?
(a) On account of more exposure to sunlight
(b) On account of more precipitation
(c) On account of less exposure to colder winds (d) All the above
(a) Soil
Ans. (c)

(a) Tropical
Ans. (a)

(a) Tropical
Ans. (c)

(a) Winter
Ans. (b)

Q.22. Why are the western slopes of the Western Ghats covered with thick forests and not the
eastern slopes?
(a) On account of more precipitation
(b) On account of less exposure to cold winds
Ans. (d)

(c) On account of more exposure to sunlight (d) All the above
Ans. (a)

Q.23. Which of the following types of resources can forests be considered as?
(a) Exhaustible resources (b) Non-renewable resources
(c) Renewable resources (d) Abiotic resources
Ans. (c)

Q.24. How do forests influence the climate of a place?
(a) Modify local climate (b) Control wind force and temperature
(c) Cause rainfall (d) All the above
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Ans. (d)

Q.25. By which of the following ways do forests control the soil cover of an area?
(a) Control soil erosion (b) Provide humus to the soil
(c) Regulate stream flow (d) All the above
Ans. (d)

Q.26. Due to which of the following reasons has the vegetation of most of the areas been
modified or replaced or degraded?
(a) Shelter to wildlife (b) Human occupancy
(d) Change of climate
Q.27. India’s natural vegetation has undergone many changes due to which of the following
(a) Growing demands for cultivated land (b) Development of industries and mining
(c) Overgrazing of pastures (d) All the above
Q.28. Which of the following states and union territories of India has the largest percentage of
its area under forest cover?
(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands (b) Arunachal Pradesh
(d) Madhya Pradesh
Q.29. Which of the following states of India has the least percentage of its area under forest
(b) Punjab (c) Himachal Pradesh (d) Sikkim
Q.30. Which of the following states of India has the largest percentage of the area under forest
(a) Maharashtra (b) Uttar Pradesh (c) Nagaland (d) Orissa
(c) Soil erosion
Ans. (b)

factors?

Ans. (d)

(c) Andhra Pradesh
Ans. (a)

cover?

(a) Assam
Ans. (b)

cover?

Q.31. Ebony, mahogany and rosewood trees are grown in which type of the following forests ?
(a) Deciduous forest (b) Tropical rainforest (c) Tropical thorn forest(d) Coniferous forest
Q.32. At which of the following places are Royal Bengal tigers found ?
Ans. (c)

(CBSE 2010)


Ans. (b)

(CBSE 2010)


(a) Mahanadi delta (b) Godawari delta (c) Kaveri delta (d) Sunderban delta
Ans. (d)

Q.33. Moist tropical deciduous forests are more prominent in the eastern and central parts of
India because : (CBSE 2010)
(a) Most of the rivers are found in these parts.
(b) The soil is ideally suited for such activities
(c) These areas experience 100 to 200 cm of annual rainfall
(d) There is commercial significance of such forests in these areas.
Ans. (c)

8


Q.34. The yak, shaggy-horned wild ox and the Tibetan antelope are found in which one of the
following regions? (CBSE 2010)
(a) Tibet (b) Uttarakhand (c) Himachal Pradesh (d) Ladakh
Ans. (d)

Q.35. Which among the following natural vegetation is most predominant in India?
(CBSE 2010)
(a) Tropical deciduous forest (b) Alpine forest
(c) Thorny bushes (d) Mangrove forest
Ans. (a)

Q.36. Which one of the following is the Biosphere Reserve of India? (CBSE 2010)
(b) Nilgiri (c) Kanheri (d) None of these
Q.37. Where in India do flamingos migrate to nest in large numbers? (CBSE 2010)
(b) Rann of Kachchh (c) Coastal areas (d) Himalayas
Q.38. Which forest is affected by tides in coastal areas? (CBSE 2010)
(b) Coniferous (c) Deciduous (d) Mangroves
Q.39. Dachigam in Jammu and Kashmir is a (CBSE 2010)
(b) Wildlife Sanctuary (c) Bird Sanctuary (d) Reserve Forest
Q.40. Plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left
undisturbed by humans for long time, is termed as :
(a) Tundra vegetation (b) Virgin vegetation (c) Taiga plants (d) None of the above
Q.41. Which one of the following trees are found in tropical rainforests?
(a) Mahogany (b) Teak (c) Sal (d) Peepal
(a) Gir
Ans. (b)

(a) Thar
Ans. (b)

(a) Alpine
Ans. (d)

(a) National Park
Ans. (b)

[2011 (T-2)]


Ans. (b)

[2011 (T-2)]


Q.42. Which parts of Himalayas are covered with dense forest?
(a) Northern (b) Eastern
Q.43. How many types of plant species are found in India?
(a) About 45,000 (b) About 40,000
Ans. (a)

[2011 (T-2)]


(c) Western (d) Southern
Ans. (d)

[2011 (T-2)]


(c) About 47,000 (d) About 20,000
Ans. (c)

Q.44. In which of the following states is Dachigam wildlife sanctuary located? [2011 (T-2)]
(a) Jammu and Kashmir (b) Punjab
(c) Himachal Pradesh (d) Uttarakhand
Ans. (a)

Q.45. Which one of the following states does not have the Tropical deciduous forests?
[2011 (T-2)]
(a) Jharkhand (b) Western Orissa (c) Chhattisgarh (d) Rajasthan
Ans. (d)
9


Q.46. Ebony, Mahogany and Rosewood trees are grown in which of the following forests?
[2011 (T-2)]
(a) Coniferrous forests (b) Tropical rainforest
(c) Tropical thorn forest (d) Deciduous forest
Ans. (b)

Q.47. The elephants are found in the hot-wet forests of ________. [2011 (T-2)]
(a) Punjab and Haryana (b) Rajasthan and Gujarat
(c) West Bengal and Jharkhand (d) Assam and Karnataka
Ans. (d)

Q.48. Which of the following is not a important tree of tropical rainforest?
(b) Rosewood (c) Mahogany (d) Sandalwood
Q.49. Which one of the following animals lives in the swampy and marshy lands of Assam and
(b) Lion (c) One-horned Rhino (d) Elephants
Q.50. A very large ecosystem on land having distinct type of vegetation and wildlife is called
(b) Biome (c) Biodiversity (d) Biosphere reserve
Q.51. Which medicinal plant has high antibiotic and antibacterial properties
(b) Neem (c) Kachnar (d) Babool
Q.52. The Yak (ox) and the Bharal are found in __________.
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Ladakh
[2011 (T-2)]


(a) Ebony
Ans. (d)

West Bengal?

[2011 (T-2)]


(a) Tiger
Ans. (c)

[2011 (T-2)]


(a) Ecology
Ans. (b)

[2011 (T-2)]


(a) Sarpagandha
Ans. (b)

[2011 (T-2)]


(a) Uttarakhand
(c) Jammu and Kashmir
Q.53. Silver fir is found in the following type of vegetation zone :
(a) Mangrove forests (b) Thorn forests
Q.54. Trees in a thorn forest are :
(a) Tall (b) dense
Ans. (d)

[2011 (T-2)]


(c) Montane (d) Decidous forest
Ans. (c)

[2011 (T-2)]


(c) scattered (d) None of these
Ans. (c)

Q.55. Which is the natural habitat of the Indian lion? [2011 (T-2)]
(a) Sundarban delta in Bengal (b) Gir forest in Gujarat
(c) Thorn forest in Rajasthan (d) Decidious forest in Madhya Pradesh
Ans. (b)

Q.56. Which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to? [2011 (T-2)]
(a) Tundra (b) Tidal (c) Himalayan (d) Tropical evergreen
Ans. (d)

10


Q.57. Which of the following trees is used for treating blood pressure? [2011 (T-2)]
(a) Jamun (b) Tidal (c) Neem (d) Sarpagandha
Ans. (d)

Q.58. Which of the following forests is found in heavy rainfall areas of the Western Ghats,
island groups and upper parts of Assam? [2011 (T-2)]
(a) Tropical evergreen (b) Tropical deciduous
(c) Mountain forest (d) Tidal forests
Ans. (a)

Q.59. Ebony and rosewood trees are found in the areas of rainfall :
(a) more than 200 cm (b) more than 100 cm
(c) more than 70 cm (d) less than 50 cm
Q.60. In which of the following parts of India evergreen forests are found?
(b) Rajasthan (c) Orissa (d) Uttar Pradesh
Q.61. Tropical rainforests grow well in areas receiving __________ rainfall.
(b) 150 cm (c) 100 cm (d) 70 cm
Q.62. Most widespread vegetation in India is
(a) Coniferous forests (b) Tropical rainforests
(c) Tropical deciduous forests (d) Mangrove forests
Q.63. In which year Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in India?
(b) 1962 (c) 1972 (d) 1982
Q.64. Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona are the important trees of?
[2011 (T-2)]


Ans. (a)

[2011 (T-2)]


(a) Assam
Ans. (a)

[2011 (T-2)]


(a) 200 cm
Ans. (a)

[2011 (T-2)]


Ans. (c)

[2011 (T-2)]


(a) 1952
Ans. (c)

(a) Tropical deciduous forests
(c) Tropical evergreen forests
Q.65. Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network bioreserve?
[2011 (T-2)]


(b) Mangrove forests
(d) Montane forests
Ans. (c)

[2011 (T-2)]


(a) Manas (b) Sunderbans
(c) Gulf of Mannar (d) Nanda Devi
Ans. (a)

Q.66. Which of the following types of natural vegetation have originally come to India from
abroad?
(a) Rare species
(c) Endangered species
Ans. (d)
(b) Endemic Species
(d) Exotic Species
[2011 (T-2)]
11


C. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (3 MARKS)
Q.1. Give a brief description of tropical evergreen forests.
Ans. Tropical evergreen forests are found in areas receiving heavy rainfall of over 200 cm, well
distributed throughout the year. They are also known as rainforests.
The warm, wet climate throughout the year supports luxuriant vegetation of all kinds including
trees, shrubs and creepers. The trees grow very tall, reaching a height of 60 metres. As the trees
grow very close to each other they form a thick canopy. The different types of vegetation form
a multi-layered structure. The climate supports large number of broad-leafed trees of different

species. Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber, cinchona are commercially important trees.
These trees donot shed their leaves at the same time as there is no distinct dry season. This
makes the forests evergreen as they retain their green look throughout the year.

Q.2. What are the characteristics of the trees of deciduous forests? (CBSE 2010)
Ans. Deciduous forests are found in areas receiving rainfall of 70 to 200 cm with a distinct dry
season. They are also known as Monsoon Forests. Trees of this forest type shed their leaves
for about six to eight weeks in dry summer. So they have a distinct period for shedding their
leaves. The trees have widespread out branches like the neem and mango. Leaves are smaller
in size than that of the rain forests to reduce transpiration. The trees also have less height than
evergreen trees. The trees are prized for their hardwood commercially valuable timber is
collected from these forests. These forests are more open and less luxuriant and trees are more
spread out. On the basis of availability of water, deciduous forests are divided into moist
deciduous, e.g. teak, sal, shisham, sandalwood, and dry deciduous, e.g. sal, peepal, neem, palas.

Q.3. Write a short note on the flora and fauna of India.
OR
Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna ? (CBSE 2010)
Ans. The term flora is used to denote plants and the term fauna is used to denote animal species
of a particular region or period. India is rich in flora and fauna and is marked by great biodiversity.
With about 47,000 plant species, India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth
in Asia in plant diversity. 15,000 flowering plants are endemic or indigenous to India. They

account for 6 per cent of world’s total number of flowering plants. A large number of nonflowering
plants like ferns, algae and fungi are also found in India. Plants of all climatic
regions ranging from tropical to Tundra are found in India. India is rich in fauna or animal life
also. It has more than 89,000 species of animals and 1200 species of birds. 13 percent of the
world’s total number of birds are found in India. 5 to 8 percent of the world’s amphibians are
found in India. It has 2500 species of fishes in its marine and freshwaters. This accounts for

nearly 12 percent of the world’s stock. India is the only country in the world which has both
lions and tigers.

Q.4. Distinguish between extinct and endangered species.
Ans. Extinct species are those species of flora and fauna which are no more surviving. Even after
searches of known or likely areas where they may occur, they are no more found. A species
may be extinct from an area, region, country, continent or the entire earth. Asiatic cheetah and
pink-head duck are extinct in India. Dodo and dinosaurs are extinct from the entire earth.

Endangered species are those species of flora or fauna which are in the danger of extinction.
They have declined in number at an alarming rate. If the negative factors that have reduced

12


their number is not checked, their survival is difficult. Black buck, Indian rhino, Indian wild
ass, Sangai and Indian tiger are endangered species in India. Black Panda is an endangered
species throughout the world.

Q.5. Give a brief description of temperate forests.
Ans. Temperate forests are found in areas with cool climate. In India, temperate forests are found
in the mountainous regions of the north. Here, a rise in altitude corresponds with a fall in
temperature and supports the growth of temperate forests. The wet temperate type of forests
are found in areas with elevation between 1000 and 2000 metres rainfall is high in these areas.

So, evergreen broad-leafed hardwood trees predominate these areas. Oak and chestnut are
important species of these temperate forests. At elevations between 1500 and 3000 metres,
temperate forests containing coniferous trees are found. These forests cover mostly the
southern slopes of the Himalayas and places having high altitude in northeast India. The trees
of these forests are tall, straight and conical in shape. The leaves are narrow and needle shaped
and seeds are found in hard cones. Pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are important trees
found in these forests.

Q.6. Discuss the type of vegetation found in a thorn forest.
OR
Describe any three features of thorn forests. (CBSE 2010)
Ans. Thorn forests are found in regions with less than 70 cm of rainfall. This type of vegetation is

found in northwestern India, in the desert and semi-arid areas.

The vegetation consists of low and open forests with short thorny tress and thorny bushes,

scrubs and grasses in between. Trees are scattered and have long roots, penetrating deep into
the soil to tap groundwater. The leaves are thick and small to reduce evaporation and are often
transformed into spines and thorns to minimise evaporation. The cacti growing in the deserts
have thick succulent stems to conserve water. Acacias, palms, euphorbias, khair, babul and
cacti are the main plant species of the thorn forests.

Q.7. What are dry deciduous forests? How do they differ from moist deciduous forests?
OR
Write three main characteristics of tropical deciduous forest ?

Ans. The tropical deciduous or monsoon forests are sub-divided into dry deciduous and moist
deciduous forests on the basis of availability of water. The dry deciduous forests are found in
areas receiving rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm. Teak, sal, peepal, neem, palas are
important trees of these forests. In contrast, the moist deciduous forests are found in areas
receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 100 cm. The trees of both the dry deciduous and moist

(CBSE 2010)


deciduous forests shed their leaves during a distinct dryperiod in summer. But the trees of the
dry deciduous forests are bare for a longer period as their dry periods lasts for more time than
that of the moist deciduous forests. The dry deciduous forests are more open and less dense.
They do not have bamboo thickets like the moist deciduous forests. Large parts of the dry
deciduous forests have been cleared for cultivation or used for grazing. Both forests have
commercially important hardwood trees. But timber from the moist forests are of better quality
and in larger quantity. Teak, sal, shisham, sandalwood, mulberry and bamboos are important
species of the moist forests.

13


Q.8. Distinguish between a tropical evergreen forest and a dry deciduous forest.
Ans. The points of distinction between a tropical evergreen forest and a dry deciduous forest are as
follows :

Q.9. Describe the main objectives of the Project Tiger and the Project Rhino and their effect
on the wildlife in India. (Important)
Ans. The Project Tiger and Project Rhino are two well known wildlife conservation projects. They
have been undertaken to protect the Indian tiger and the one-horned rhino of India which are

Their objectives are as follows :

(i) Protect the endangered species from poaching, hunting and illegal trading.
(ii) Save the natural habitats of these animals so that they can breed naturally and multiply
in numbers.
(iii)Maintain a survey of the number of existing tigers and rhinos.
These well publicised projects have played a great role in protecting the endangered
animals. Under the projects government has undertaken steps to save and protect the
existing animals by banning hunting and poaching.

Tropical Evergreen Forests Dry Deciduous Forests
(I) Tropical evergreen forests are found
in areas receiving heavy rainfall
of more than 200 cm, well distributed
throughout the year. They are also called
rainforests.
(II) The trees of this forest have no definite
time for shedding their leaves as there
is no distinct dry season. So, the forest
appears green all the year round.
(III) This forest has luxuriant vegetation
comprising tall trees, shrubs and
creepers.
(IV) Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and
cinctiona are important trees of this forest.
Dry deciduous forests are found
in areas receiving rainfall between
100 cm and 70 cm. They are a subtype
of temperate deciduous or
monsoon forests.
The trees of this forest shed their
leaves during a distinct dry period of
six to eight weeks in summer. So, the
forest appears bare or has a brown
look during summer.
This forest is more open, with shorter
trees having widely spaced branches.
There are open stretches in between
with grasses growing there.
Teak, sal, peepal and neem are important
species of trees of this forest.

endangered species.

Q.10. What is an ecosystem ? How do the human beings influence the ecology of a region ?
(CBSE 2010)
Ans. All the plants and animals occur in distinct groups of communities in areas having similar
climatic conditions. All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent and interrelated
to each other in their physical environment called the ecosystem. Human beings are an integral
rapt of the ecosystem. They utilise the vegetation and wildlife. The greed of human beings
leads to over utilisation of these resources. They cut the trees and kill animals creating an
ecological imbalance.

14


Q.11. Describe the kind of vegetation and wildlife found in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta.
(CBSE 2010)
Ans. The Ganga-Brahmaputra delta is covered by mangrove forests, mainly Sundari trees which
provide durable hard timber. Palm, coconut, keora, agar also grow in some parts of the delta.
Royal Bengal tiger is the famous animal found here. Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes
are also found in these forests.

Q.12. What are the steps taken by the Government to protect flora and fauna in India? Write
any three.
[2011 (T-2)]
Ans. To protect the flora and fauna of the country, the government of India has taken many steps,

(i) Fourteen biosphere reserves have been set up in the country at different places to protect flora
and fauna. Out of these four have been included in the world network of biosphere reserves.
(ii) Project tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other ecodevelopmental
projects have been introduced.
(iii) 89 National parks, 49 wildlife sanctuaries and zoological gardens are set up to take care
of our natural heritage.
Q.13. In which region are the thorny forests and scrubs found in India? Mention any two
characteristics of such type of vegetation?
Ans. The thorny forests and scrubs in India are found in regions with less than 70 cm of rainfall.
This type of vegetation is found in the North-Western part of the country including semi-arid
areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
Acacias, palms euphorbias and cacti are the main plant species.

The two important characteristics of such type of vegetation are as follows :

(i) Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil in order to get moisture.
(ii) The stems of the trees are succulent to conserve water. Leaves are mostly thick and small
to minimize evaporation.
Q.14. Explain the different biodiversity of India.
Ans. India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world.
With about 47,000 plant species India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia

as stated below :

[2011 (T-2)]


[2011 (T-2)]


in plant diversity.
There are about 15000 flowering plants in India which account for 6 percent of the world's
total number of flowering plants. The country has many non-flowering plants such as ferns,
algae and fungi. Besides, India has 89,000 species of animals as wells a rich variety of fish
in its fresh and marine water.


Q.15. Name the two sub-type of Tropical deciduous forests. State any two features of each type
also. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The two sub-types of Tropical deciduous forests are (i) Moist Deciduous and (ii) Dry
Deciduous type. These divisions are made on the basis of the availability of water.

(i) Moist deciduous forests are found in regions receiving rainfall between 200 and 100 cm.
The main characteristics of vegetation are (a) thick cover of forest, characterized by
climbers and epiphytes. Bamboo and ferns are common. (b) All the trees are evergreen.
They do not shed their leaves at a time. Therefore, the forest will remain green all the year
round.
15


(ii) The dry deciduous forests are found in areas having rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm.
The principal characteristics of dry deciduous forests are (a) These forest shed their leaves
during early spring or summer when sufficient moisture is not available. The forest
appears bare and brown during summer. (b) The forest is more open in which grow
important trees like teak, sal peepal, neem.
Q.16. Name the vegetation found at high altitude in our country and mention animals are found
in this region. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. At higher altitudes, generally more than 3600 metres above sea level, temperate forest and
grass lands give way to the Alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the

common trees. These trees are progressively stunted as they approach the snow line.
The common animals found in these forests are Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, Jack
rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggyhorn, wild ibex, bear and rare red
panda, sheep and goats with thick hair.

Q.17. How are forests useful to us? Give Examples.
OR
How are forests important for human beings? Explain.
Ans. Forests provide to man food, fibre, fodder, timber, fuel wood and hosts of other essential items.
It provides raw materials to industry and transport.
Forest is a renewable resource and is widely used as domestic fuel in Third World countries.
Forest also influences the environment by modifying local climate, controlling soil erosion and

deposits humus in the soil, regulating stream flows.
Minor forest products provide livelihood to many forest dwellers. Besides, forest is the home
of various wild animals and birds. It offers recreation to man and boosts the Tourism industry.


Q.18. What do you mean by natural vegetation? What is their importance?
Ans. Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and
has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is also known as a virgin vegetation.
Cultivated crops and fruits, orchards form also part of vegetation but not natural vegetation.

The importance of natural vegetation lies on to modify local climate, control soil erosion,

[2011 (T-2)]


[2011 (T-2)]


regulate stream flow, support a variety of industries, provide livelihood for many communities
and offer panoramic view for recreation. It controls windforce, regulate temperature and causes
rainfall. It also provides humus on the soil and shelter to the wild life. India's natural vegetation
has undergone drastic changes. Still, it holds key position in areas of inaceessable hilly regions
and Marusthali.

D. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (4 MARKS)
Q.1. Describe the major vegetation types found in the Himalayas.
OR
Why does mountain vegetation change with altitude ? Explain with example . (CBSE 2010)
Ans. In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increase in altitude leads to
corresponding changes in natural vegetation. As such, there is a succession of vegetation and
a distinct arrangement ranging from the tropical to the tundra region in the montane forests of
hilly and mountainous regions of the Himalayas. Tropical evergreen forests with rosewood,
ebony and ironwood are found in rainier parts of the foothills and in higher altitudes upto

16


above 1000 metres. Tropical deciduous forests of sal, teak, palas and bamboo are found in the
foothills upto a height of 1000 metres. Wet temperate forests with evergreen broad-leafed trees
like oaks and chestnut predominate between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres. Temperate
coniferous forests with softwood trees like pine, deodas silver fir, spruce and cedar grow at
altitude between 1500 and 3000 metres. They are followed by temperate grasslands at higher
elevation. At high altitude of more than 3600 metres temperate forests and grasslands give way
to alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are common trees. As they approach
the snowline they get progressively stunted. Shrubs, scrubs and then alpine grasslands are
found at higher elevations.

At still higher altitudes in shaded slopes, moss and lichens, typical of Tundra vegetation, grow.

Q.2. Describe how rainfall and relief influence the vegetation of an area.
Ans. Factors like rainfall and relief influence the natural vegetation of an area

Rainfall : Climate plays an important role in determining the natural vegetation of a region.

Rainfall determines the type, character and extent of vegetation in an area. Areas of heavy

rainfall have dense vegetation with rich forests while arid areas and semi-arid areas with less

rainfall have thorny and scrub vegetation. Areas with more than 200 cm of annual rainfall have

tropical evergreen rainforests. Tropical moist deciduous forests are found in areas with 100 to

200 cm of rainfall. Tropical dry deciduous forests are found in areas receiving rainfall between

100 cm and 70 cm. In regions with less than 70 cm of rainfall the natural vegetation consists
of thorny trees and bushes.
Relief : The type of vegetation found in an area depends upon the relief or landform of the

area. The fertile level lands of plains are generally devoted to agriculture. Much of the natural
vegetation is cleared or altered in such areas. Grasslands and woodlands develop in areas with
undulating and rough terrains. Mountainous areas have succession of vegetation types
according to the altitude of the area.

Relief and Rainfall. Windward slopes of Western Ghats are covered with thick forests because
they receive heavy rainfall. The eastern slopes do not have thick forests because they are on
the leeward side and receive less rainfall.

Q.3. Give a brief account about the wildlife of India.
Ans. Our country, India, has a rich natural heritage of fauna – 89,000 animal species, 1200 species
of birds, 2500 species of marine and freshwater fish and 5 to 8 per cent of the world’s
amphibians, reptiles and mammals are found in India.

The wildlife in the different natural habitats are varied and rich. They include :

(i) The majestic Indian lions found in the Gir forest of Gujarat, the last remaining habitat of
Asiatic Lion. India is the only country in the world that has both lions and tigers.

(ii) Tigers found in the national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in the forests of Madhya
Pradesh, the Sunderbans of West Bengal and Himalayan region.
(iii) The large Asian elephants of the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala.
(iv) The endangered one-horned rhinoceroses found in the swampy and marshy lands of Assam
and West Bengal.
(v) Indian wild ass of the Rann of Kachchh.
(vi) Camels found in Thar desert.
17


(vii) Ladakh’s freezing high altitudes are home to yak, the shaggy horned wild ox, the Tibetan
antelope, the bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep and the kiang (Tibetan wild ass), ibex, bear,
snow leopard and rare red panda are found in some areas of the Himalayas.
(viii) Indian bison, nilgai, chousingha (four-horned antelope), gazel, different species of deer
and several species of monkeys are found in India.
(ix) Many colourful birds, including peacock which is our national bird, are found in India.
(x) Turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found in rivers, lakes and coastal areas. Snakes like
cobras and others are found in different areas.
Q.4. Why are some of the animals and plants endangered in India? How can they be
(Important)
OR
What steps have been taken by the government to protect flora and fauna of the country.

(CBSE 2010)
OR
Write three measures to protect wildlife. (CBSE 2010)
OR
Write any three measures to conserve ecosystem. (CBSE 2010)

Ans. Endangered species are those species of flora and fauna which are in the danger of extinction.
In India, about 1,300 plant species are endangered. Quite a few animal species, like the one-
horned rhino, Indian tiger, Indian wild ass, black buck, red panda, Asiatic elephants, Indian
bustard, are endangered.

The main causes that have lead to threat upon. India’s flora and fauna, endangering many

(i) Hunting and poaching for illegal trade of animal tusks, horns, bones, skin, etc.
(ii) Reckless cutting of forests to bring land under cultivation and settlement have destructed
the natural habitats of wild creatures and wiped off valuable species of trees.
(iii) Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits, have brought down numbers
protected?

species are :

of plants and animals.

(iv) Introduction of alien species that may be hostile to existing species.
Understanding the grave threat, conservation of forests and wildlife have been taken up.
Government, NGOs, wildlife organisations and volunteers have taken up activities to protect
wildlife and plants. They include :
(i) Fourteen biosphere reserves to protect biodiversity.
(ii) Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and other eco-development
projects to protect endangered species.
(iii) Setting up of 89 National Parks, 492 Wildlife Sanctuaries, Zoological Gardens, Protected
and Reserved Forests, Botanical Gardens to protect the endangered species along with
other types of flora and fauna.
(iv) Wildlife Protection Acts to safeguard wildlife.
(v) Affortestation, social programmes and awareness campaigns can also help to protect
endangered species.
18


Q.5. Write a note on the formation and distribution of mangrove forests in India. (Important)
OR
Mention two regions in India where you will find mangrove forests. What are the
features of the mangrove forests? (CBSE 2010)
Ans. The mangrove or tidal forests are found in coastal areas under the influence of tides. The
deltaic areas with clayey soil and saline water during tides have mangrove forests.
The plants of these areas have adapted themselves to the alteration of freshwater and saline

water as well as to the sticky mud and silt. The roots of these plants are submerged under
water. They have breathing roots protruding on the surface. The trees have stilt like roots to

support the trunk of the tree in the wet soil.
The forest are dense with hardwood trees like sundari, keora, agar, palm and coconut in some parts.
The mangrove forests are found in :


(i) The Ganga-Brahmaputra delta which are known as Sunderbans on account of the sundari
trees that predominate here. It provides durable hard timber.
(ii) Deltas of the rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri on the east coast of India.
Q.6. Write a note on the importance of biosphere reserve. What are its objectives?
Ans. Biosphere reserves are a series of multipurpose protected areas linked through a global
network, intended to demonstrate the relationship between conservation and developement.
Their sole purpose is conservation of flora and fauna.

The biosphere reserves play an important role in maintaining the ecological balance in the
ecosystem. In the biosphere, all living beings are interrelated and interdependant on each other
for survival. This life supporting system is called ecosystem. Vegetation and wildlife are two
valuable resources of the biosphere. The biosphere reserves are set up to protect them and

The main objectives of the biosphere reserves are :

(i) to protect and conserve the biological diversity, i.e., preserving plant and animal species
of the area in natural forms.
(ii) to protect flora and fauna from over-exploitation.
maintain diversity.

(iii) to undertake research and experimentation in forestry.
(iv) to save endangered species and prevent extinction of valuable species. There are fourteen
such biosphere reserves in India.
Q.7. Give the main causes for depletion of biodiversity in India.
Ans. The varied climate and landform of India support of rich variety of natural vegetation. But only
about 23 per cent of the land area of India is at present under forests. It is far lower than the

(CBSE 2010)


desired 33 per cent outlined in the National Forest Policy.
The main reasons behind the reduction of the natural vegetation of India are as
follows :


(i) Deforestation. Large areas of forests have been recklessly cleared by man due to the
following reasons :
(a) to meet the growing demand for cultivated land,
(b) to acquire land for setting up industries,
(c) to provide land for settlement and urbanisation.
19


(ii) Shifting cultivation in hilly areas of northeast and Central India.
(iii) Mining. Large areas are cleared of natural vegetation for the purpose of mining.
(iv) Constructional activities like building of dams submerge areas of valuable forests and
destruct the natural vegetation.
(v) Natural hazards like forest fires and landslides affect natural vegetation in hilly areas. The
Tsunami of 2004.
(vi) Cyclonic storms affect plant cover of the areas where they strike. Overgrazing of pastures.
(vii) Wiped off valuable rainforests in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
These above mentioned human-made and natural factors have accelerated the process of
extinction of natural vegetation in India.

Q.8. What type of dangers does the wildlife sanctuaries of India face? How can they be
protected better? Write a brief note on each.
Ans. 492 Wildlife Sanctuaries have been set up in India to protect and conserve wildlife. The
government has demarcated them and maintains them. But certain external factors and
loopholes in internal management of these areas creates problems and affect their purpose.

Dangers faced by wildlife sanctuaries of India are as follows :

(i) Poaching or illegal killing of animals for trade of their hides, skins, tusk, horns and bones.
(ii) Hunting of animals for game.
(iii) Killing of animals by villagers in instances of migration of animals to inhabitated areas
during floods. In North Bengal often elephants move out from the forests to cultivated
fields and are killed by the villagers.
(iv) Shortage of trained personnel to take care of the animals within the sanctuaries. This leads
to death of sick animals.
(v) Shortage of funds for management of the sanctuaries.
The wildlife sanctuaries can be protected better in the following ways :
(i) Strict vigilance of the areas within the sanctuaries.
(ii) Enforcing strict measures against people encroaching the wildlife sanctuaries without
(iii) Making laws against poaching and hunting more strict and punishing people who dare to
proper permission.

destroy the sanctity of the wildlife sanctuaries.

(iv) Training the personnel to take proper care of animals within the wildlife sanctuary.
(v) Creating a proper, protected boundary for the wildlife sanctuaries.
(vi) Creating public awareness regarding the need of wildlife sanctuaries.
E. MAP WORK (4 MARKS)
Q.1. Mark and label the following in a outline map of India
(a) Places occupying tropical evergreen rainforests
(b) Places occupying tropical dry deciduous forests
(c) Places where mangrove forests occur
(d) Alpine vegetation places
20



Q.2. In the following outline map of India, mark and label the following:
(a) Scrub and thorn forests of India
(c) Tundra vegetation
(d) Deciduous forest region of peninsular India
(b) Montane forest
21


Q.3. On the outline map of India, mark and label the following:
(a) The Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary
(b) The Kanha National Park
(c) The Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary
(d) The Gir National Park
BROTHERS PRAKASHAN
KazirangaWildlifeSanctuaryKaziranga
Wildlife
Sanctuary
GirNationalParkGir
National
Park
KanhaNationalParkKanha National Park
PeriyarWildlifeSanctuaryPeriyar Wildlife
Sanctuary
I. PROJECT WORK
Q.1. Make a mini flower garden with your own name carved in flower plants.
Requirement :
II. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
.. Flower box •
Grow a Garden in the Shape of Your Name:
Step 1 : Prepare the soil in a large, rectangular flower box or in a garden.
Step 2 : Use a sharp stick or pencil to write your name in the dirt.
Step 3 : Sprinkle flower seeds in the marks you made.
Soil ..Pencil ..Flower seeds
Step 4 : Sprinkle loose soil over the seeds and keep them watered. Soon, you'll see your name
sprouting from the ground in bright green. Keep watering your name and watch it bloom.


Flower box

22


Q.2. Collect the leaves of ten different types of trees. Paste them in a scrapbook.
Write the names of the trees from which you have collected the leaves. Identify and mention
the type of vegetation to which they belong.

Example

Ans.


Needle shaped leaves Broad evergreen leaves
Tree — Deodar Tree — Rubber
Type of vegetation — Type of vegetation —
Coniferous Forest. Tropical Rain Forest


II. ACTIVITIES
Q.1. Vegetation Search : Where do I grow?
Given below are some soil types in different landforms.


GOYAL
Sandy soil—Desert Deltaic soil—Delta


Mountain soil—Hill slopes Undulating rough terrain

Draw the type of vegetation found in these areas shown in the diagrams, choosing from the
plants given below.

23


Ans.
Grasslands in undulating rough terrain Cacti — Sandy soil of desert


Mangroves or tidal forests in claye soil of delta Coniferous trees in mountain soil of hill slopes

III. ASSIGNMENTS
Q.1. Classify :
Classify the following trees and vegetation according to the type of forests where they occur :
Mahogany, Cinchona, Cactus, Khair, Arjun, Acacias, Sundri, Palm, Silver fir, Junipers,
Chestnut, Rosewood, Rubber, Bamboo, Sal, Shisham, Peepal, Keora, Agar, Spruce, Cedar

Ans.

Type of Vegetation
Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
Tropical Deciduous Forest
Tropical Thorn and Scrub Forest
Montane Forest
Mangrove Forest
Trees found
Mahogany, Cinchona, Rosewood, Rubber
Khair, Arjun, Bamboo, Sal, Shisham, Peepal
Cactus, Acacias
Silver fir, Junipers, Chestnut, Spruce, Cedar
Sundri, Palm, Keora, Agar

Q.2. Animal Locator
Locate the following animals to the respective wildlife sanctuary where they are found:
Animals : Rhinoceros, Lion, Tiger, Wild Ass, Snow Leopard, Gharial

Ans.

Wildlife Sanctuaries Animals
Sunderbans Tiger / Gharial
Gir National Park Lion
Jim Corbett National Park Tiger
Hemis High Altitude Park Snow Leopard
Kaziranga National Park Rhinoceros
Rann of Kachchh Wild Ass

24


Q.3. Make a list of five forest products in two columns that are useful to man.
Ans.

Edible Non-Edible
A Fruits Timber
B Nuts and berries Lac
C Roots Gum
D Honey Rubber
E Medicinal herbs Firewood and leaf litter

Q.4. Label the following five medicinal plants : Aloe Vera, Pudina, Tulsi, Neem, Arjun
Neem Tulsi


Arjun

Q.5. What are the uses of these medicinal plants, state two uses of each?
Ans.

Aloe Vera

Pudina

Medicinal Plants Uses
Neem Antibiotic for wounds, antibacterial soap and cleansers.
Tulsi Cure for cough and cold, anti-stress organic tulsi-gingar
tea.
Aloe Vera Antibacterial facial cleansers, in creams.
Pudina Digestive medicines, mouth freshner.
Arjun Fresh juice cure for earache, used to regulate blood
pressure.

25


IV. GROUP DISCUSSION
Q.1. Discuss with the students of your classroom about the importance of afforestation in
India and its benefits.
Q.2. Hold a class discussion on steps taken by the Government to protect the flora and fauna
of the country.
Ask the students to suggest steps to protect plants and animals individually.
The students can bring newspaper cuttings and pictures from magazines to highlight the need
to protect flora and fauna and some measures taken in this regard. Stress the importance of
endangered species.


V. QUIZZES
Q.1. Animal Hunt
Given below are a list of animals. Name one area where it is found :

Ans.

Animals State/Area
1. Elephant Hot wet forests of Kerala
2. One-horned rhinoceros Swampy and Marshy lands of Assam
– Kaziranga wildlife sanctuaryBROTHERS PRAKASHAN3. Wild ass Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat
4. Camel Thar Desert of Rajasthan
5. Tiger Sunderbans in West Bengal
6. Yak Ladakh in Himalayan region / Sikkim
7. Kiang (Tibetan wild ass) High altitudes of Himalayas in Ladakh
8. Lion Gir forest of Gujarat
9. Black buck Rajasthan
10. Bharal (blue sheep) Freezing high altitude areas of Ladakh

Q.2. Word Jumble
Rearrange the alphabets in the following words to form the correct word for which a hint is
provided in brackets.

(a) OFRLA (term denoting plants of a particular region)
(b) MEOBI (very large ecosystem on land having plants and animals)
(c) RMONGAVE (vegetation occurring in the delta region)
(d) TAUCCS (Desert growth)
(e) PALPEE (Common deciduous tree found all over India)
Ans. (a) FLORA (b) BIOME (c) MANGROVE (d) CACTUS (e) PEEPAL
26


Q.3. Answer the following questions with respect to mangrove forests.
Find the missing letters in the following words with the help of the hints provided :
(a) An area where it is found (b) Two important trees found here
(c) Two famous animals found here (d) Type of water found here
(e) Mangrove forests are also known as forests.
Ans. (a) [S U N D E R B A N S]
(b) [S U N D R I] [PAL M]
(c) [T I G E R] [G H A R I A L]
(e) [T I D AL]
Q.4. Word Grid
Trees :

Ans. 1.

(d) [B R A C K I S H]
In the word grid below, the names of at least five trees and five animals found in India are
given. Can you find them?


Animals :
SANDALWOOD 1. GAZEL

2. NILGAI
2. CEDAR
3. SAL
4. DEODAR
5. TEAK
6. PINE
3. LEOPARD
4. TIGER
5. DEER
6. RHINOCEROS
27


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