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I. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
— Terai — lying next to Bhabar, a wet and marshy area with wildlife and forests.
— Bangar — Older alluvium plain which rises above the level of the flood plains.
— Khadar — Younger alluvium of the flood plains.
The Peninsular Plateau
..The Peninsular Plateau is the tableland formed due to the breaking and drifting of the
..The plateau consists of two broad divisions, namely, the Central Highlands and the Deccan
..The eastward extensions of Peninsular Plateau are locally known as Bundelkhand and
Baghelkhand. The Chhota Nagpur Plateau marks the further eastward extension drained by
the Damodar river.
..The Deccan Plateau, a triangular mass, lies to the south of the river Narmada.
..The western and eastern edges of the Deccan Plateau are marked by the Western Ghats and
the Eastern Ghats respectively.
..The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats.
..A distinct feature of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as Deccan Trap.
The Indian Desert
..The undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes towards the western margins of the
Aravalli Hills is the Indian Desert.
..Cresent shaped dunes called barchans cover large parts of the Indian Desert.
..Luni is the only large river in this region.
The Coastal Plains
..The narrow coastal strips flank the Peninsular Plateau.
..On the west the coastal strips are divided into Konkan (Mumbai-Goa), Kannad Plain and the
Malabar coast from northern to southern part.
..On the east the coastal strip is divided into Northern Circars and the Coromandal Coast from
northern to southern part.
..The Lakshadweep Islands group in the Arabian Sea is close to Kerala.
..The Lakshadweep Islands were formerly known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive.
..The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are an elongated chain of islands located in the Bay of
..The Andamans and Nicobar Islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains.
I. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
A. NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Questions within the Lesson
Q.1. Find out the names of the glaciers and passes that lie in Great Himalayas. (Page 11)
Ans. Glaciers in the Great Himalayas — Gangotri, Chaturangi, Bhagirathi, Kharak, Satopanth,
Kamet, Milam and Pindari.
Passes in the Great Himalayas — Karakoram pass, Shipkila pass, Nathula, Bomdila pass.
Q.2. Find out the name of the states where highest peaks are located. (Page 11)
Ans. Mountain peaks States
Nanga Parbat Jammu and Kashmir
Nanda Devi Uttarakhand
Namcha Barwa Assam
Q.3. Find out location of Mussoorie, Nainital, Ranikhet from your atlas and also name the
states where they are located.
Q.1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :
(i) A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as
(c) Peninsula (d) None of the above.
(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundaries with Myanmar
(b) Uttaranchal (c) Purvanchal (d) None of the above.
(iii)The western coastal strip south of Goa is referred to as
(c) Kannad (d) Northern Circar
Questions in the Exercise
(a) Coast (b) Island
are collectively called :
(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi (b) Kanchenjunga
Q.2. Answer the following questions briefly
(i) What are tectonic plates ?
Ans. Large fragments of the Earth’s crust torn due to the rising currents are called tectonic plates.
(ii) Which continents of today were part of the Gondwanaland?
Ans. South America, Africa and Australia.
(iii) What is the ‘Bhabar’?
(c) Mahendragiri (d) Khasi
Ans. Bhabar is a pebble studded formation situated at the junction of mountain and plain.
(iv) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
Ans. The Great or the Inner Himalayas or the Himadri, the Middle Himalayas or the Himachal, and
the Outer Himalayas or the Shivaliks.
(v) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhya ranges?
Ans. The Malwa plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhya Ranges.
(vi) Name the island group of India having coral origin.
Ans. Lakshadweep Islands is the island group of India having coral origin.
Q.3. Distinguish between
(i) Converging and Diverging Tectonic Plates.
Converging Plates Diverging Plates
(a) When tectonic plates move towards (a) When tectonic plates move away from
each other, they are called converging each other, they are termed as
plates. diverging plates.
(b) When they move towards each other, (b) When they move away from each other,
they collide or crumble or one of they do not collide or crumble.
them slides under the other.
(c) Converging plates cause folds. (c) Diverging plates cause fractures
in the crust.
(ii) Distinguish between Bangar and Khadar.
(a) Formed of older alluvium (a) Renewed every year.
(b) Lies above flood plains of rivers. (b) Is newer, younger deposit of flood
(c) Presents a terrace like feature. (c) Contains calcerous deposits locally
known as Kankar.
(d) Less fertile (d) More fertile
(iii) Distinguish between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
OTWestern Ghats Eastern Ghats
(a) They stand like a continuous wall and (a) They are discontinuous and irregular.
can be crossed through passes only. They have been dissected by rivers
Thal Ghat provides passage to rails which have made their passages to
and roads. reach the Bay of Bengal.
(b) This range is a source of many large (b) No big river originates from this
(c) It obstructs the monsoon winds coming (c) They are almost parallel to the
from the Arabian Sea which causes monsoons originating in the Bay
heavy rainfall in the Western Coastal of Bengal and do not cause
Plain. much rainfall.
Q.4. Describe how the Himalayas were formed.
Ans. Geologists claim that a sea was located where the Himalayas now stand. Internal and external
changes of Earth’s crust occurred. It is said that one of the crustal plates, called the Indo-
Australian plate, separated from the super-continent named Gondwanaland. It drifted slowly
towards the north to collide with the Eurasian plate five million years ago. The northern edge
of the Indo-Australian plate was pushed beneath the Eurasian plate. After the collision of these
two plates, the sedimentary rocks of enclosed ocean folded to form the Himalayas.
Q.5. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the
Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular Plateau.
Ans. The major physiographic divisions of India are :
(i) The Great Mountains of the North. (ii) The North Indian Plain.
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau (iv) The Coastal Plains and
(v) The Islands.
Himalayan Region Peninsular Plateau
(a) This region comprises greatest and (a) Rugged and dissected terrain plateau is
highest mountain ranges a remnant portion of the supercontinent
of the world. the Gondwanaland.
(b) The ranges have I-shaped (b) It has horsts, rift valleys and troughs.
and U-shaped valleys.
(c) It is the origin of perennial rivers. (c) It has rainfed, seasonal rivers.
(d) Young fold mountains made from the (d) Created from igneous and metamorphic
uplift of the strata formed by rocks after splitting of Gondwanaland.
the sedimentary rocks.
(e) Parallelly arranged mountain (e) Rivers dissect. Faults and vertical
ranges are separated by movement of the Earth mark the plateau.
valleys and plains.
Q.6. Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.
Ans. The Northern Plains have been formed from the alluvium that the mountain rivers deposited
here. This turned the soil on the surfaced land fertile for growing a rich harvest of variety of
crops. This led to the development of the Indus River Valley Civilisation. The rich soil was
further aided by favourable climate and constant water supply from the rivers. Between the
mouths of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra, the North Indian Plain covers a distance of
3200 km. It is 300 to 150 km wide at some places. The North Indian Plains have the Indus
river system in the west and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system in the east. The first includes
Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Satluj. The Indus flows into the Arabian Sea.
The second includes Ganga, its tributaries and the Brahmaputra which combine as Meghna as
they drain into the Bay of Bengal. They form the world’s largest and fastest growing delta.
The difference in relief has led the North Indian Plains to be divided into four zones :
(i) Bhabhar, (ii) Tarai,
Q.7. Write short notes on the following.
(i) The Indian Desert
Ans. Lying towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills, the Indian desert is formed of sandy
(iii) Bangar and (iv) Khadar.
plain covered with sand dunes. Receiving less than 10 mm rainfall in a year, the region has
arid climate, low vegetation and streams that appear only in the rainy season. But they soon
disappear into the sands, lacking enough water to reach the sea. Large areas of the deserts have
crescent shaped sand dunes, i.e. barchans, while longitudinal dunes are abundant near Indo-
(ii) Central Highlands.
Ans. The northern part of the Peninsular Plateau consists of plateaus, denuded mountain ranges and
low hills made of igneous rocks. In the north-west are the Aravali range, running in south-west,
north-east direction forming a discontinuous ridge. Thar Desert lies to the west of Aravali
ranges. The southern boundary is demarcated by the Vindhya Range with Kaimur Hills in the
eastern extent. The Malwa plateau lies between Aravalis and Vindhyas. Between the valleys
of Narmada and the Son, escarpments are formed by the Vindhyan Kaimur range.
(iii) Island groups of India.
Ans. The Lakshadweep consists of many small islands located opposite the Kerala coast in the
Arabian Sea. The islands of this group are formed of coral deposits called ‘atolls’ in
Malayalam which refer to their ring or ‘horse-shoe’ shape. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
on the other hand, are larger in size. They are more in number and more widely scattered.
There are about 200 islands in the Andaman group and 19 islands in the Nicobar group.
On an outline map of India show the following.
Mountain and hill ranges — the Karakoram, the Zaskar, the Patkai Bum, the Jaintia, the
Vindhya range, the Aravali, and the Cardamom hills.
Peaks — K2, Kanchenjunga, Nanga parbat and the Anai Mudi.
(iii) Plateaus — Chhota Nagpur and Malwa
PR(iv) The Indian Desert, Western Ghats, Lakshadweep Islands.
OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS (AS PER CCE PATTERN)
B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (1 MARK)
Q.1. Which of the following is responsible for the variation in the colour of soil in different
parts of India?
(a) Difference in rock formations (b) Weathering
(c) Erosion and deposition
Q.2. Which of the following has not been a factor in the creation and modification of India’s
(b) Population density
(d) Erosion and deposition
Q.3. Which of the following is a plausible theory presented by Earth scientists to explain the
formation of continents and oceans and the various landforms?
(b) Theory of Plate Tectonics
(d) Theory of Relativity
Q.4. According to the ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics,’ the earth’s crust is formed of how many
(b) Five (c) Seven (d) Ten
(a) Geological formations
(a) Theory of Motion
(c) Theory of Evolution
Q.5. According to the ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics,’ the movement of the plates result in some
geological activity. Which one of the following is not such a geological activity?
(a) Volcanic activity
Q.6. According to the ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics,’ when some plates come towards each other,
which of the following is formed?
(a) Convergent boundary
(c) Transform boundary
(b) Divergent boundary
(d) Colliding boundary
Q.7. According to the
‘Theory of Plate Tectonics,’ when some plates move away from each
other, which of the following is formed?
(a) Convergent boundary
(b) Divergent boundary
(c) Transform boundary
(d) None of the above
Q.8. According to the ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics,’ in the event of two plates coming together,
which of the following is not possible?
(a) The plates may collide and crumble.
(b) The plates may move horizontally past each other.
(c) The plates may form divergent boundary.
(d) One plate may slide under the other.
Q.9. According to the ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics,’ what have been the effects of the movement
of the plates?
(a) Change in position and size of continents.
(b) Formation of ocean basins.
(c) Evolution of the present landforms and relief of India.
Q.10. A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as _______.
(d) None of the above
Q.11. Which of the following divisions of India has the oldest landmass?
(b) The Northern Plains
(d) The Indian Desert
Q.12. The Peninsular Plateau of India is part of which of the following landmass?
(d) Eurasian Plate
(d) All of the above.
(a) The Himalayas
(c) The Peninsular Plateau
Q.13. Which of the following countries or continents was not a part of the ancient landmass of
Which continents of today were part of the Gondwanaland ?
(a) Asia and Africa
(c) Europe and Africa
(d) South America
(b) Europe and Asia
(d) Australia and South America
Q.14. The northward drift of the Indo-Australian plate resulted in its collision with the much
larger Eurasian plate. Which of the following was the result of this collision?
(a) The Gondwanaland split into a number of plates.
(b) The continents of Europe and Asia were formed.
(c) Sedimentary rocks accumulated in the Tethys geosyncline were folded.
(d) India and Australia were formed.
Q.15. Which of the following physiographic divisions of India was formed out of accumulations
in the Tethys geosyncline? (Important)
(a) The Himalayas (b) The Northern Plains
(c) The Peninsular Plateau (d) The Indian Desert
Q.16. The Himalayan uplift out of the Tethys Sea and subsidence of the northern flank of the
peninsular plateau resulted in the formation of a large basin. Which of the following
physical divisions of India was formed due to filling up of this depression?(Important)
(b) The Northern Plains
(d) The Coastal Plains
Q.17. Geologically, which of the following physiographic divisions of India is supposed to be
one of the most stable land blocks?
(b) The Northern Plains
(d) The Indian Desert
Q.18. From the point of view of geology, which of the following physiographic divisions of India
is considered to be an unstable zone?
(b) The Peninsular Plateau
(d) The Islands
Q.19. Which of the following are young-fold mountains?
(b) The Nilgiris
(c) The Himalayas
(d) The Sahyadri
(a) The Himalayas
(c) The Peninsular Plateau
(a) The Himalayas
(c) The Peninsular Plateau
(a) The Himalayan Mountains
(c) The Indian Desert
(a) The Aravalis
Q.20. Which of the following physical features forms a natural barrier to the north of India?
(a) Kunlun Mountains
(c) River Brahamaputra
Q.21. The Himalayas consist of three parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent.
Which of the
following is the name of the northern-most range?
(a) The Himadri
(c) The Shivaliks
(b) Plateau of Tibet
(d) The Himalayas
(b) The Himachal
(d) The Purvanchal
Q.22. Which part of the Himalayas is perennially snowbound?
(a) Great Himalayas or Himadri (b) Lesser Himalayas or Himachal
Q.23. Which of the following is the highest peak in India?
(a) Mt. Everest (b) Kanchenjunga (c) Nanga Parbat (d) Nandadevi
Q.24. Which of the following is not a mountain pass in the Great Himalayas?
(a) Bara Lapcha La and Shipkila (b) Nathula
(c) Khyber pass
(d) Jojila and Lipu Lekh
Q.25. What are Lesser Himalayas known as?
(a) Himadri (b) Himachal (c) Shivaliks (d) Purvanchal
Q.26. Which of the following ranges are not part of the Lesser Himalayas or Himachal?
(b) Dhaula Dhar
Q.27. In which division of the Himalayas are the famous valleys of Kashmir, Kangra and Kullu
(b) The Himachal
(d) The Duns
of the following ranges of the Himalayas are composed of unconsolidated
sediments brought down by rivers?
(b) The Karakoram range
(d) The Ladakh range
Q.29. The longitudinal valleys lying between lesser Himalayas and Shivaliks
(a) Kangra Valley
(c) Passes (d) Duns
(a) Pir Panjal
(a) The Himadri
(c) The Shivaliks
(a) The Pir Panjal range
(c) The Shivaliks
(b) Patkai Bum
Q.30. From west to east, the divisions of the Himalayas are demarcated by river valleys. The
part of the Himalayas lying between the Satluj and Kali rivers is known as ________.
(a) Punjab Himalayas
(c) Nepal Himalayas
Q.31. Which two hills are located in the south-east of Eastern Ghats ?
(a) Mizo Hills and Naga Hills
(c) Patkoi Hills and Manipuri Hills
(b) Kumaon Himalayas
(d) Assam Himalayas
(b) Javadi Hills and Shevroy Hills
(d) Mizo Hills and Patkoi Hills
Q.32. Which islands of India are called Coral Islands?
(b) Andman and Nikobar
(d) None of these
Q.33. A narrow gap in a mountain range providing access to the other side is : [2010 (T-1)]
(a) Mound (b) Pass (c) Strait (d) Valley
Q.34. The wet and swampy belt of the Northern Region is known locally as : [2010 (T-1)]
(a) Bhabar (b) Terai (c) Doab (d) Bhangar
Q.35. Find the odd one out : [2010 (T-1)]
(a) Kanchenjunga (b) Nanga Parbat
(c) Namcha Barwa (d) Anai Mudi
Q.36. The largest delta in the world is : [2010 (T-1)]
(b) Mahanadi Delta
C. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (3 MARKS)
Q.1. Describe the Theory of Plate Tectonics.
Ans. A plausible theory presented by earth scientists to explain the formation of continents and
ocean basins and the various landforms is the ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics’. According to the
theory, the crust of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor tectonic
According to the earth scientists, millions of years ago, the world comprised of
continent ‘Pangaea’ surrounded by the primeval ocean ‘Panthalasa’. The present continents and
intervening oceans were formed due to splitting of the crust into plates due to convection
currents and drifting of these plates.
Q.2. Where would one find most of the volcanoes and earthquake zones in the world and why?
(a) Ganga Delta
(c) Sunderban Delta
Ans. Most volcanoes and earthquake zones in the world are located at plate margins.
According to the ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics’ presented by earth scientists, the crust of the earth
has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates.
The movement of these plates due to convection currents results in the building up of stresses
within the plates and continental rocks above. This leads to folding, faulting and volcanic
activity along the zones of maximum stress, i.e., mostly along the margins of the plates.
Earthquake and volcanic activity are maximum here.
The circum-Pacific region – popularly termed as the Pacific Ring of Fire on account of its
volcanoes and frequent earthquakes
Q.3. Name the different major physiographic divisions of India. Write a note on any one of
– lies along the margin of tectonic plates.
the physiographic divisions of India. (Important)
Ans. The major physiographic divisions of India are as follows :
(i) The Himalayan Mountains
(ii) The Northern Plains
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau
(iv) The Indian Desert
(v) The Coastal Plains
(vi) The Islands
The Coastal Plains : The Peninsular Plateau of India is flanked by a stretch of narrow coastal
plains to its west and east. The Western Coastal Plain is a narrow strip of plain stretching along
the Arabian Sea lying to its west and flanked by the Western Ghats to its east. The northern
part of the West Coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai to Goa), the central stretch is called the
Kannad while the sourthern part is called the Malabar Coast.
The Eastern Coastal Plain is comparatively wide and level stretch running along the Bay of
Bengal lying to its east with the Eastern Ghats rising to its west. It is known as Northern Circar
in the north, while its southern part is referred to as the Coromandal Coast.
Q.4. How was the Great Northern Plains of India formed? Give a brief description.
Ans. The formation of the Himalayas due to upliftment of sediments out of the Tethys Sea and
subsidence of the northern flank of the Peninsular Plateau resulted in the formation of a
Over millions of years this depression gradually got filled up with alluvium deposited by the
the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra flowing from the
Himalayas in the north. Sediments were also deposited by the tributaries of these rivers
rising from the mountains in the north as well as the Peninsular Plateau to its south. As a
or Northern Plains, and the Brahmaputra Plain in the
As the Himalayas gained in height, the rivers, glaciers and other agents of denudation
became increasingly active in erosion. As a result, large amount of silt got deposited in the
Q.5. Where are the Western and the Eastern Ghats situated? Write a small note on each.
Ans. The Western and the Eastern Ghats are situated in the Peninsular Plateau region. The Western
Ghats mark the western edge of the Deccan Plateau and lie parallel to the Western Coast.
three major river systems
result, the fertile Indo-Gangetic
northeast, were formed.
The Eastern Ghats mark the eastern edge of the Deccan Plateau. They stretch from the
Mahanadi Valley to the Nilgiri Hills in the south. The eastern coastal plain runs to its east.
The Western Ghats are continuous and regular and can be crossed only through passes like the
Thal, Bhor and the Pal Ghats. They are comparatively high in elevation (average 900 to 1600
metres). No major river cuts across the Western Ghats.
The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and irregular. They are of relatively lower elevation
(average 600 m). They are dissected by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
Q.6. Write a note on the Indian desert describing its location and relief.
Ans. See NCERT Q. No. 7 (i)
Q.7. Define tectonic or lithospheric plates.
Ans. Earth scientists have put forward the view that the Earth’s crust or the lithosphere is not a
continuous block. It consists of several large and small, rigid, irregularly shaped plates (slabs)
which include continents and the ocean floor. These slabs are moving or drifting in relation
to each other by about 2.5 cm to 5 cm each year. These crustal slabs are called tectonic or
lithospheric plates. According to the ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics’ put forward by the Earth
scientists, the earth’s crust has been formed out of seven major and some minor tectonic plates
or lithospheric plates.
Q.8. Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhya range? Write a brief note on this
Ans. The Malwa Plateau lies between the Aravali hills and the Vindhya range. The Aravali hills lie
to the west of the plateau and the Vindhya range lies to its south.
The part of the peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river, covering a major
area of the Malwa plateau, is known as the Central Highlands.
The Malwa plateau lies in Madhya Pradesh. It is composed of extensive lava flows. There are
rolling plains separated by flat-topped hills. The plateau is largely broken in form of ravines
near the Chambal Valley in its east.
Q.9. What do you understand by 'duns'? Where are they situated in our country? Give any
Ans. The longitudinal valleys lying between Lesser Himalaya and the Shivaliks are known as duns.
Dehradun and Kotli Dun are two examples of duns.
Q.10. What are corals? Name and describe the island group which is of coral origin.
Ans. Corals are shortlived microscopic organisms, which lives in colonies. They flourish in shallow,
mud-free and warm waters. They secrete calcium carbonate. The coral secretion and their
Lakshadweep islands group lying close to the Malaber Coast of Kerala is composed of small
Ans. Bhabar is pebble studded formation situated at the base of mountains and plains in the
Terai is a sloping land at the foothills of the Nepal Himalayas. The Terai receives heavy
two examples of duns.
skeletons form coral deposits.
Q.11. Describe 'Bhabar' and 'Terai'.
rainfall and is densely forested.
Q.12. Name any three divisions of Himalayas on the basis of regions from West to East and also
write one main feature of each.
Ans. The Himalayas have been divided on the basis of regions from west to east. These divisions
have been demarcated by river valleys.
(i) The part of Himalayas lying between Indus and Sutlej has been traditionally known as
Punjab Himalayas. It is also regionally known as Kashmir Himachal Himalaya from west
to east respectively.
part of Himalayas lying between Sutlej and Kali rivers is known
(iii) The Kali and Tista rivers demarcate the Nepal Himalayas and the part lying between Tista
and Dihang rivers is known as Assam Himalayas.
Q.13. Why are the Himalayas called young fold mountains?
Ans. The Himalayan mountain is geologically young and structurally fold mountains stretch over the
northern parts of India. It was uplifted from the 'Tethys Sea' during the Tertiary period. The
whole mountain represents a very youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and fast
flowing rivers. That is why it is called an young-fold mountian.
Q.14. The relief of India displays a great physical variation. Explain. [2010 (T-1)]
Ans. India is a vast country with varied landforms. It has high mountains, plains, plateaus, islands,
deserts etc. This varied large landmass formed during different geological periods which has
influenced her relief. Besides geological formations, a number of processes such as weathering,
erosion and deposition have created and modified the relief to its present form. It is, therfore,
India displays a great physical variation.
Q.15. What is the Great Himalaya? Write two characteristics of it.
Ans. The northernmost range of the Himalayas is known as the Great or Inner Himalayas or the
(i) It is the most continuous range consisting of the loftiest peaks with an average height of
6000 metres. It contains all the prominent Himalayan peaks.
(ii) Its folds
are asymmetrical in nature and its core is composed of granite rock. It is
perenmially snowbound and contains many glaciers.
D. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (4 MARKS)
Q.1. Give a brief description about how the Himalayas were formed. (V. Important)
Q.2. Write a note on the different parts of the Great Himalayan range.
Ans. The Himalayas are the one of the loftiest and most rugged mountain systems of the world. The
mountain ranges of the Himalayas run in a west-east direction from the Indus to the
Brahmaputra, stretching along the entire northern boundary of India. Geologically they are
young and structurally fold mountain system.
The Himalayas consists of three sections comprising parallel ranges running from west to east.
Ans. See NCERT Q. No. 4
The nothern-most section is known as the Greater or Inner Himalayas. On account of its
permanent snow cover and glaciers the section is also termed as Himadri. It is the most
continuous section. The average height of these ranges is 6000 metres. All the prominent and
loftiest peaks of the Himalayas are located here. Some of prominent peaks are the Everest
(8848 m) in Nepal, Kanchenjunga (8598 m in Sikkim), Nanga Parbat (in Kashmir), Nanda
Devi (Uttarakhand) and Namcha Barwa (in Tibet, near Arunachal Pradesh) and Dhaulagiri and
Annapurna in Nepal.
To the south of Himadri lie the rugged ranges of the Lesser Himalayas or the Himachal. Their
average width is 50 km. The average height ranges between 3700 and 4500 metres. The Pir
Panjal range, the Dhaula Dhar and Mahabharat ranges are important ranges. The famous valley
of Kashmir, the Kangra and the Kullu Valleys in Himachal are located in this range.
The outermost range of the Himalayas is called the Outer Himalayas or the Shivaliks. They
extend over a width of 10-50 km. They are discontinuous ranges. Their average height is
between 900 and 1100 metres. They are composed of unconsolidated sediments, gravel and
alluvium brought down by the rivers that rise in the northern ranges. Hence, they are the
youngest section of the Himalayas.
Longitudinal valleys known as duns lie between the Lesser Himalayas and Shivaliks, e.g.,
Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun, Patli Dun.
Q.3. Describe the formation of India from Gondwanaland.
Ans. According to the ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics’ presented by earth scientists, the earth’s crust is
composed of tectonic plates. The movement of these plates have influenced the evolution of
present landforms of India.
The southern part of the ancient super-continent Pangaea is known as Gondwanaland. It
included India, Australia, South Africa and South America as one single landmass.
Geologically, the Peninsular Plateau, which is one of the oldest landmasses of the earth’s
surface, was part of the Gondwanaland.
Tectonic forces split the crust into a number of plates. A part of the Gondwanaland, the Indo-
Australian plate, drifted northwards. This resulted in the collision of this plate with the much
larger Eurasian plate. The intervening portion between Angaraland in the north and
Gondwanaland in the south was occupied by Tethys Sea. Due to this collision, the sediments
that had accumulated in the Tethys geosyncline was uplifted and folded. This resulted in the
The Himalayan upliftment out of the sediments of the Tethtys Sea and subsidence of the
formation of the lofty Himalayas.
northern flank of the Peninsular Plateau resulted in the formation of
millions of years the depression gradually got filled with deposition of sediments by the rivers
flowing from the mountains in the north and the Peninsular Plateau in the south. The interplay
a large basin. Over
the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their tributaries
formed a fertile, flat land of extensive alluvial deposits known as the Northern Plains.
of three major river systems
ERQ.4. Distinguish between the Northern Plains and the Peninsular Plateau.
The Northern Plains The Peninsular Plateau
1. Geologically, the Northern Plains
were formed in recent geological
2. Northern Plains are the most recent
3. They are being formed and reshapedby the river systems.
4. It is a fertile, level land.
5. The Northern Plains are formed of
alluvial deposits brought down by therivers.
6. The Northern Plains are divided into
three sections : (i) The Punjab Plainsformed by Indus and its tributaries.
(ii) The Ganga Plains in North India.
(iii) The Brahmaputra Plain in Assam.
7. The Northern Plains are covered with
rich, fertile alluvial soil, ideal for highagricultural production.
1. Geologically, the Peninsular Plateau ispart of the Gondwanaland, the southernpart of ancient super-continent Pangaea.
2. The Peninsular plateau is part of oldestlandmass.
3. It is one of the most stable land blocks.
4. It is a plateau or tableland with gentlyrising rounded hills and wide shallowvalleys.
5. The Peninsular Plateau is composed ofold crystalline igneous and
6. The Peninsular Plateau is divided
mainly into two broad divisions : (i)
the Central Highlands and (ii) the
7. A distinct feature of the Peninsular
Plateau is the black soil area known as
Deccan Trap. This soil is ideal for
growth of cotton.
8. It is the most densely populatedregion of India on account of fertilesoil, adequate water and favourableclimate.
8. It has moderate density of population. 8. It is the most densely populatedregion of India on account of fertilesoil, adequate water and favourableclimate.
8. It has moderate density of population.
Q.5. Which part of the Himalayas is known as Purvanchal? Write a short note on the
Purvanchal Himalayas. (Important)
Ans. The eastern hills and mountains of the Himalayas running along the eastern boundary of India
are known as Purvanchal. They are located in the northeastern states of India.
The river Brahmaputra marks the easternmost boundary of the Himalayas. Beyond the Dibang
gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along India’s eastern border. They
are known as Purvanchal. They run mostly as parallel ranges with valleys in between. They
are mostly composed of strong sandstone, a sedimentary rock. The Purvanchal are less
spectacular than the Himalayas and are of medium height. The hills and ranges are covered
Some important hills of the Purvanchal are :
(i) the Patkai Bum and Naga hills
(ii) the Mizo hills and Manipur hills
(iii) the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills along Meghalaya-Bangladesh border.
Q.6. Describe the important features of the Peninsular Plateau.
Ans. The Peninsular Plateau of India lies to the south of the Northern Plains and extends up to the
tip of the Indian peninsula. The Peninsular Plateau is a tableland with gently rising rounded
hills and broad, shallow valleys. It is roughly triangular in shape. It is the oldest and the most
stable landmass of India. The plateau is formed of old crystalline igneous and metamorphic
with dense forests.
(iv) the Dafla hills in the north.
rocks. The Peninsular Plateau consists of two broad divisionsDeccan Plateau. The part of the Peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river is
known as Central Highlands. It comprises of Malwa Plateau, Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand
plateaus, the Vindhya Range and extends as Chhota Nagpur Plateau. The Aravalis are highly
denuded old hills that lie on the western and northwestern margins of the Peninsular Plateau.
The part of the Peninsular Plateau lying to the south of river Narmada is known as Deccan
Plateau. It is a triangular landmass with broad base in the north and tapers southward. It is
formed due to lava flows, so a greater part of it is composed of basaltic rocks of volcanic
origin. It is flanked by the Satpura range in the north. The Mahadev, the Kaimur hills and
Maikal range form its eastern extensions. The Deccan Plateau is flanked by the Western Ghats
– the Central Highlands and the
in the west and Eastern Ghats in the east. The Western Ghats have comparatively higher
elevation of average 900 to 1600 metres. The Eastern Ghats have an average elevation of 600
metres. So the plateau is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards. The black soil area
of the Deccan Plateau is known as Deccan Trap.
Q.7. Write a note on the Central Highlands of India. Name the various parts of the Central
Highlands. (V. Important)
Ans. See NCERT Q. No. 7 (ii)
E. MAP WORK (4 MARKS)
Q.1. In the following map of India, mark and label the following:
a. The Himadri range b. The Shivaliks
c. The Purvanchal d. The Malwa Plateau
Q.2. In the following map of India, mark and label the following:
GOYAL BROTThe Chhota Nagpur Plateau
b. The Western Ghats
d. The Aravalis
Q.3. In the following map of India, mark and label the following:
a. The Eastern Ghats b. The Khasi Hills
c. The Thar Desert d. The Deccan Plateau
GOYAL BOTII. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
A. PROJECT WORK
Q.1. Construct a three dimensional map of Physical India. Use the following materials.
(a) Thermocol [1-2 kg]
(c) Water Colours
Q.2. Detective Geologists
Many students go to different regions of India during vacation.
Ask the students to collect rock samples and soil types from different physiographic divisions
of India. They can take help from relatives to acquire the samples. On the table place placards
(b) Plaster of Paris [1/2 kg]
(d) Wooden Tray [1 square feet]
depicting the different physiographic divisions. Ask the students to place the rock or soil
sample according to the division.
Next, divide the class into groups representing different physiographic divisions. Tell them to
explain how and why such samples are found in the following regions :
(i) The Himalayan Mountain (ii) The Northern Plain — Khadar, Bangar
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau — Basalt rocks, Black soil, Red soil
(iv) The Indian Desert — Sand (v) The Coastal Plain—Sand, rock, soil
(vi) The Islands—Soil, rocks, seashells the four essays.
Q.1. Location Arrangement
The following places are located in one of the Indian physiographical divisions. Put the
respective places in the right column.
(a) Shivaliks (b) Chilika (c) Himachal (d) Brahmaputra Plains
Bhabar belt (f) Malwa Plateau (g) Nilgiris (h) Northern Circars
Coromandel Coast (j) Terai (k) Konkan (l) Anai Mudi
(m) Patkai Hills (n) Chhota Nagpur (o) Bundelkhand (p) Satpura Range
(q) Malabar Coast (r) Dhaula Giri (s) Nathula
Himalayas Northern Plains Peninsular Plateau Coastal Plains
Shivaliks Brahmaputra Plains Malwa Plateau Chilika
Himachal Bhabar belt Nilgiris Northern Circars
Dhaula Giri Terai Anai Mudi Coromandel Coast
Nathula Doab Chhota Nagpur Plateau Konkan
Patkai Hills Bundelkhand Malabar
Q.2. Find the odd one out and circle it with red colour.
Pangaea, Angaraland, Glaciers, Gondwanaland, Tethys Sea.
[Hint : Except one, all the others are connected with the Theory of Plate Tectonics.]
Erosion, folding, faulting, volcanic activity.
[Hint : Except one, all the others are result of movement of crystal plates].
(iii) India, Eurasia, Australia, South Africa, South America.
[Hint : Only one is part of ancient Angaraland, all others are parts of the ancient
(iv) Tethys Sea, young-fold mountains, Himadri, Terai, Purvanchal.
[Hint : Only one is connected with Northern Plains, all the others are connected with the
(v) Doab, bhabar, Baghelkhand, terai, bangar, khadar,
[Hint : Only one is part of Peninsular Plateau, all others are sections or belts of the
C. GROUP DISCUSSION
Discuss with your friends in your classroom about the advantage of having the Himalayas as our
Divide the students of your classroom into two halves and debate on the advantage and
disadvantage of having a long coastline.
Team A: The advantages of a long coastline
Team B: The disadvantages of a long coastline
Q.1. Word Jumble
Find the missing letters from the following words by using the hints provided :
a. STEHYT (Ancient sea over which the present Himalayas are situated)
b. WAGODNNA (Oldest landmass of which India was earlier a part)
c. DMIAHIR (Northernmost part of the Himalayas)
d. LMAJIU (Largest inhabited River Island in the world)
e. GMAHNEDARIIR (Highest peak in the Eastern Ghats)
c. HIMADRI d. MAJULI
Find the missing letters from the following words (take help from the hints provided)
(Crescent shaped sand dunes)
(Largest salt lake in India)
f. KLHDASAEPWE (Coral Islands)
Ans. a. TETHYS b. GONDWANA
e. MAHENDRAGIRI f. LAKSHADWEEP
Q.2. Missing Letters
Ans. a. PURVANCHAL (The eastern boundary of the Himalayas)
b. HIMACHAL (Lesser Himalayas)
(Coast of Kerala)
(Only active volcano of India)
f. BARREN ISLAND
Q.3. Picture Puzzle
BROTThe following pictures are from different Indian locations. Label them with the following
physiographic divisions of India:
The Himalayan Mountains The Northern Plains
The Peninsular Plateau
The Indian Desert
The Coastal Plains
Q.4. Word Grid :
In the word grid below are the names of at least 5 Indian rivers and 5 Indian relief features.
They are located both horizontally and vertically. Can you find them?
Ans. Indian Rivers Indian Relief Features
KRISHNA DAFLA HILLS
Given below are names of some mountains. Circle them where it belongs.
2. Dhaula Dhar — Himadri, Himachal, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats.
Anai Mudi — Central Highlands, Satpura range, Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats.
Q.5. Find My Group Leader :
Himadri, Himachal, Western Ghats.
Ans. 1. Kanchenjunga
Himachal, Shiwaliks, Purvanchal, Deccan Plateau.
3. Patkai Hills
Purvanchal, Shivalik, Peninsular Plateau, Western Ghats.
4. Aravali Hills
Purvanchal, Central Highlands, Deccan Plateau, Chhota Nagpur.
5. Kaimur Hills
GOYAL BROTMahendragiri — Purvanchal, Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, Central Highland.
Mizo hills — Shivaliks, Purvanchal, Central Highlands, Himachal.
Satpura range —
10. Namceha Barwa — Himadri, Himachal, Purvanchal, Central Highlands.
Aravali, Central Highlands, Deccan Plateau, Western Ghats.